|About 25 million acres (10,121,000 hectares) of grapes are grown world wide, and over the past several years plantings have increased sharply in some locations. The acreage of grapes grown and gallons of wine produced in various countries of the world in 1973 is shown in Table 6-1, and the total tonnage of grapes produced in California and several other states in 1972 is shown in Table 6-2.|
|In California the largest increase in grape plantings from 1969 to 1973 was in wine grapes, which increase from 7,064 acres (2,860 hectares) in 1969 to 57,385 acres (23,233 hectares) in 1973 (Table 6-3). In 1974 plantings of wine grapes decreased by over 50 percent. The bearing acreage of 645, 981 (261, 531 hectares) is made up of table (11%), wine (50%) , and raisin (39%) grapes.|
|There are around 8000 varieties of grapes in the world that have been named and described, but only about 2000 of these are grown in California. Perhaps 60 of the total number are important varieties.|
|Table Grapes in California
Table grapes are of far less importance than wine or raisin grapes on a worldwide basis. In California, however, table grapes constitute an important industry. The Republic of South Africa also has a considerable table grape industry. The following pages give descriptions of important kinds of table grapes grown in California (after Jacob, 1950). The number of acres at the end of each description refers to acres of the grapes grown in California, both bearing and non-bearing.
Almeria (Ohanez). A late, white seeded variety with excellent shipping quality. Stems are tough and berries firmly attached. Clusters are of medium to medium large size, straggly to compact. Berries are medium large. Cylindric, greenish white, with neutral flavor and tough, thick skins. Susceptible to Ohanez spot, probably due to heat injury. Located mainly in Tulare county and mostly grown on arbors. The variety is self sterile and requires cross pollination. Spain exports large quantities of Almeria packed in granulated cork. (1007 acres, 408 hectares).
Calmeria. An open pollinated seedling selection of Almeria with excellent storage and shipping quality. The vine resembles Almeria and has large, long conical, well filled clusters. It is self fertile. Berries are white, large, cylindrical, with tough skins and firm pulp. Introduced in 1950 at Fresno, California, by E. Snyder and F. Harmon (U.S. Department of Agriculture). (4,053 acres; 1,641 hectares).
Cardinal. A very early red, seeded, table grape which is a cross of Tokay and Ribbier. Clusters are medium to large, conical, and loose to compact. Berries are very large, round to short oval, depressed at apex, and may have no or more shallow sutures. Berries are cherry-red changing to reddish black as maturation proceeds. Vines are vigorous and grow well with cordon pruning, and require flower cluster or cluster thinning. The vine thrives is hot areas, and was introduced in 1950 at Fresno by E. Synder and F. Harmon (2,779 acres; 1,125 hectares).
Emperor. A very popular late ripening, seeded variety. The clusters are large, long conical, and loose to well filled. Berries are uniform, large, elongated obovoid or ellipsoidal, light red to reddish purple. They are seeded, moderately firm, neutral in flavor, and have thick, tough skins. Stems are tough, and berries adhere very firmly. Vines are moderately vigorous, of medium productivity, and are cordon pruned.
The Emperor attains a red color and a large berry near foothills along the eastern side of the San Joaquin Valley in Tulare, Fresno, and Kern counties where about 90 percent of the Emperor is produced. It is an excellent storage and shipping grape and much of the crop is held in cold storage. Its origin is unknown. (23,974 acres; 9,706 hectares.)
The principal producing area in around Lodi in Region IV. In the hotter regions the variety does not color well and sunburns badly, whereas in the cooler coastal sections it does not ripen properly. Tokay has good storage and shipping qualities. It originated in Algeria. (19,895 acres, 8,055 hectares).
Italia. Clusters are large to medium, conical, and well filled. Italia has very large, long oval berries, a heavy orange white bloom and a mild Muscat flavor. The vigorous vines respond well to cordon pruning. The shipping quality is fair. The source of Italia is Italy. (1,149 acres; 465 hectares).
Malaga. Malaga is a white, seeded grape that ripens in midseason and has good storage and shipping qualities. It was once the leading table grape variety in California but has been largely replaced in the market by the Thompson Seedless from girdled vine. Most of the grapes are used for distilling material or low grade wines.
Clusters are large to very large, conical, and well filled. Berries are uniform, large, ellipsoidal, whitish green to whitish yellow, normally seeded, firm, neutral in flavor, and have thick, tough skins. Stems are tough and the berries adhere firmly. Vines are vigorous and very productive. Cordon pruning is most suitable, but head pruning is satisfactory. It is grown mainly in the warm regions of the San Joaquin Valley. (4,213 acres; 1,706 hectares.)
|Table Grapes of Minor Importance in California
Barlinka. A black, late maturing grape with large, short oval berries. It is the leading table grape in the Republic of South Africa.
Beauty Seedless. A very early black seedless variety with small to medium oval berries with a neutral taste. Introduced in 1954 by H.P. Olmo, Davis, California. (193 acres; 78 hectares.)
Black Hamburg. A black, seeded variety with large spherical berries.
Black Monukka. A black seedless, midseason grape with large berries. (348 acres; 141 hectares.)
Black Prince. A black, seeded variety with large, spherical berries and a crisp texture. (147 acres; 60 hectares.)
Blackrose. A jet black grape that ripens in early midseason. It has a very attractive appearance. Introduced in Fresno, California by E. Snyder and F. Harmon. (68 acres; 28 hectares.)
Concord. A black, seeded American variety (118 acres; 48 hectares.)
Cornichon. Berries are purplish black and short oval. Vines rather tolerant of powdery mildew. (88 acres; 36 hectares.)
Delight. An early white seedless grape with medium size ellipsoidal berries having a slight Muscat flavor. Introduced by H.P. Olmo in 1947 at Davis, California.
Early Muscat. A very early yellow grape with round medium size berries and a mild muscat flavor. Introduced in California by H.P. Olmo in 1958.
Dattier. A white seeded grape with large episoidal berries. Fruit has pleasing flavor and ripens in midseason.
Early Niabel. A black, seeded, tetraploid, midseason grape, suitable for sweet juice and semisweet wines. Colors two weeks earlier than Niabell. Introduced by H.P. Olmo in 1958 at Davis, California. (740 acres; 300 hectares.)
Gold. An early midseason grape with large oval berries. The gold colored berries have a mild Muscat flavor. Introduced by H.P. Olmo in 1958 at Davis, California.
Golden Muscat. An American variety with a Muscat flavor that grows well in California. (101 acres 41 hectares.)
Kandahar. A white, seeded grape that ripens in midseason. It has very large cylindrical berries and brittle stems (62 acres; 25 hectares.)
Muscat Hamburg. A black midseason variety with berries of medium size and ellipsoidal shape that have a Muscat flavor.
Niabell. A black, seeded, tetraploid, midseason grape with very large, spherical berries, possessing a distinctive labrusca like flavor. Vines are rather tolerant to powdery mildew. Introduced by H.P. Olmo in 1958 at Davis, California. (111 acres; 45 hectares.)
Olivette blanche. A late season, seeded white grape with very large clusters and berries. Vines are vigorous and moderately productive if cane pruned. Clusters are usually straggly to loose. Grows well in all grape growing areas of the San Joaquin and intermediate central valley regions. (115 acres; 47 hectares.)
Pearl of Csaba. A very early, white seeded variety with medium sized berries of spherical shape. It has a Muscat flavor.
Queen. A red, midseason grape with large oval berries and a neutral flavor. It is a good shipping variety. Introduced by H.P. Olmo in 1954 at Davis, California. (394 acres; 160 hectares.)
Rish Baba. A white seeded grape that ripens in early midseason. Berries are large and elongated, with one side nearly straight and the other bulging near the middle. It has a neutral flavor, and is thin skinned and easily bruised. Stems are brittle. Both Rish Baba and Olivette blanche are marketed as ?Lady Fingers.? Originated in Irian.
Superior Seedless. A white seedless with large, firm berries that ripens earlier than Thompson Seedless. Introduced recently by the Superior Farming Company (121 acres; 49 hectares.)
Robin Cardinal (Thornburgs Robin). A bud mutation of Cardinal that ripens about 5 to 10 days before Cardinal. Introduced in Arozona by W. Thornburg. (75 acres; 30 hectares.)
Ruby Seedless. This variety has large reddish black to dark red clusters that rip
|Wine Grapes in California
Description of some of the important wine varieties are listed below (after Jacob, 1950; Amerine and Winkler, 1963). The total acreage of each variety in California is also included.
Aleatico. A black grape with a fragrant Muscat aroma, important in the Tuscany region of Italy. In California the vine is not popular because of its orange red color, early ripening, poor vigor and productivity, and tendency to sunburn. (249 acres; 101 hectares.)
Alicante Bouschet. A black variety with red juice. It makes poor wine with intense color which fades with age. The grapes have fair shipping quality and may are sent to eastern markets. Clusters are medium sized, shouldered, conical, and well filled to compact. Berries are medium sized, spherical, brilliant black with a blue-gray bloom . Ripens in late midseason. Best suited to fertile soils in the warmer parts of the coastal valleys and in the intermediate central valley region (6,820 acres; 2,760 hectares.)
Almission. A black grape that is a cross between Mission and Carignane. It makes poor wine. (97 acres; 39 hectares.)
Aramon. A late season red grape having poor color. it is used for dry table wine. (75 acres; 30 hectares.)
Barbera. A red grape having very high acid content that makes it valuable for blending with other grapes for table wine production in moderately warm regions. These grapes can make a good high acid wine. Clusters are medium sized, conical, winged, well filled. Berries are medium sized, ellipsoidal, black, with colourful skin, neutral flavor, astringent. They ripen in midseason, and are best suited to the warm areas of the coastal valleys and the intermediate central valley region. (20,576 acres; 8,30 hectares.)
Clusters are small to medium and irregular in shape, but often long conical. They are loose to well filled. Berries are small, very seedy, midseason. Skin is tough, and the flavor is pronounced and characteristic. Vines are very vigorous and productive with cane pruning. The grapes attain their highest quality in the cooler parts of the coastal valleys. (24,539 acres; 9,935 hectares.)
Clusters are medium sized, shouldered, cylindrical, and well filled to compact. Berries are medium sized, ellipsoidal, and black with a heavy blue gray bloom. Berries ripen in late midseason. Vines are very vigorous and productive. Cane is large, semierect to erect, and the grows well with head pruning. (30,710 acres; 12,433 hectares.)
Clusters are large, conical, heavily shouldered, and loose. The stems are rigid. Berries are medium sized, oblate, reddish purple to black, and ripen in late midseason. The pulp is firm but juicy. Vines are very vigorous and occasionally attain huge size, if given a sufficient area in which to develop. It is a heavy bearer. (6,356 acres; 2,573 hectares.)
Clusters are small, cylindrical, and well filled. Berries are small medium, spherical, greenish yellow, and speckled with brown. Berries are juicy and aromatic in flavor, and ripen in early midseason. Vines are vigorous and moderately productive with cane pruning. (7,194 acres; 2,913 hectares.)
|Region IV. For many years in the Lodi district, the principal viticultural and winemaking operations produced table grapes and dessert wines. In recent years, however, due to a decrease in demand for table grapes and dessert wines and an ever increasing demand for table wines, these studies were concentrated on table wine varieties.
Table 6-5 gives the variety and wine quality evaluation for a trial plot of grapes established at Lodi. These data and recommendations should be used in conjunction with those made earlier, to make the best decisions on planting and other problems.
|Region V. Trials were also made in Madera, Fresno, Tulare, and Kern Counties (Ough et al., 1973). Although the area encompassed by the evaluations is quite large, the climates are similar, and the main differences in various areas of the region are caused by soil differences or by different irrigation or cultivation techniques. These differences were considered by the investigators, and their evaluations are based on experimental data and also on information gathered from the winemaking industry. A consensus of opinion was used in making the evaluations.
Viticultural characteristics of wine grape varieties are presented in Table 6-6, and evaluation of various varieties of winemaking is given in Table 6-7.
|Raisin Grapes (After Jacob, 1950)
The three main raisin grapes are Black Corinth, Muscat of Alexandria, and Thompson Seedless (Sultanina). Worldwide production of raisins and currants is shown in Table 6-8.
|Black Corinth (Zante Currant). This variety probably originated in Greece. Clusters are small to medium, winged, and uniformly cylindrical. Berries are very small, spherical to oblate, reddish-black, mostly seedless, very juicy, neutral in flavor, with very thin, tender skins. They ripen early and dry easily into very small raisins of soft texture and pleasing tart taste. They are well suited to the central and southern parts of the San Joaquin Valley.
Fiesta. A medium sized, white seedless grape that matures 12 to 14 days before Thompson Seedless. The berries are oval, but rounder than Thompson Seedless. Skin is tender and flavor is good. Clusters are medium to large and not usually compact. Raisins made from Fiesta are slightly larger plumper, and more meaty than Thompson Seedless. Grows best when cane pruned (Weinberger and Loomis, 1974; V.E. Petrucci, private communications). Cap stems are slightly more difficult to remove from Fiesta than from Thompson Seedless (V.E. Petrucci, private communication).
Fiesta was developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Fresno, it was first released in 1973.
Sultanina rose has a rose or pink color, but is otherwise almost identical to Thompson Seedless. It is useful only for home gardens.
Clusters are large, cylindrical, and heavily shouldered. Berries are small, oval elongated, seedless, and white. Vines are vigorous and productive and cane pruning is necessary. Thompson Seedless ripens early, has fair shipping quality, and the grapes dry easily into raisins of excellent quality.
|Phylloxera-Resistant Rootstock Varieties
Riparia Gloire (syn. Gloire de Montpellier; Gloire) is a seedling selection from Vitis riparia, a phylloxera-resistant species native to the eastern United States. This old stock, is not drought tolerant, and is therefore suitable only for moist fertile soils. It is not recommended for use in California. Leaves are large, entire, heart shaped, with a tendency to form three lobes. Serrations are sharp, alternating in size, and distinctly enlarged at the apices of the lobe. Leaves are medium green with a light tomentum on both surfaces, generally confined to the veins. The large petiole has uniform short hairs, and the petiolar sinus has a broad V-shape. The vine bears small clusters of male flowers.
St. George (syn. Rupestris du Lot, Rupestris St. Geroge) is a variety of Vitis Rupestris, a phylloxera resistant species native to the eastern United States. This stock produces vigorous grafted vines and is drought-tolerant. It is recommended for the drier hillside locations of the nonirrigated coastal valleys. It is not resistant to nematodes or to oak root fungus. Cuttings root well, and the stock is easily budded or grafted. With low bearing wine grapes, its high vigor has reduced yields. Leaves are small, entire, round, with a distinct, open or flat petiolar sinus. Uniform serrations are around the leaf edge. Leaves are light glossy green, smooth, with a leathery texture and no tomentum. Vine grows upright, has compact, bushy appearance, and bears small clusters of male flowers only.
AXR #1 (syn.Ganzin No. 1; Aramon X Rupestris Ganzin, No.1; A XRG, No.1; AXR) arose as a hybrid between the species Vitis vinifera, var. Aramon, and the phylloxera resistant species Vitis rupestris, var. Ganzin. This rootstock produces vigorous grafted vines that bear good yields of high quality fruit. It is phylloxera resistant but susceptible to nematodes. It performs well under irrigation and in the deeper, heavier soils of the floors of the coastal valleys, especially, with the lighter bearing varieties. It is recommended for raisin and table varieties in the heavier, phylloxerated soils of the San Joaquin Valley. Cuttings of this stock root quite readily, and it buds and grafts easily. Leaves are medium to small, entire, round to a short heart shape, with a distinct, curved, open V-shaped petiolar sinus. They are light glossy green, smooth with a leathery texture and no tomentum. Shoots are semierect to trailing; internodes medium to long; dormant canes fairly large in diameter; bark tan to light brown; some lengthwise cracking at the base of large canes. Vine is vigorous, semierect, spreading, with fairly heavy shoot growth. It bears male flowers profusely in small to medium sized clusters.
1202 (syn. Couderc 1202; Mourvédre X Rupestris No. 1202) is a variety arising as a hybrid between the fruiting type Mataro (Mourvédre) and Vitis rupestris. It is phylloxera resistant but susceptible to nematodes. Although rarely used in California, it can produce excellent vines with table varieties in the heavier soils of the San Joaquin Valley. Similar to AXR #1, but less vigorous. Cuttings root readily, and it buds and grafts easily. Leaves are small to medium small, entire, round to heart shaped, with deep, narrow U shaped petiolar sinus, and a tendency to close. Small, uniform serrations are around the leaf edge. Leaves medium to dark glossy green, smooth with a thin, leathery texture and no tomentum; slight tendency toward three lobbing. Vines are fairly vigorous, semierect, with dense appearance, and bear perfect flowers that develop clusters of small black berries.
99-R (syn. Richter 99; Berlandieri X Rupestris, No. 99) is a variety arising as a hybrid between the species Vitis berlandieri and V. rupestris. It is a low vigor stock, drought tolerant, and resistant to phylloxera but no to nematodes. Produces moderately small vines that bear heavily. It is suitable for use on hillside plantings that show drought conditions, or in more fertile, shallow valley floor locations. Because of its low vigor, it is generally not recommended for commercial use. Although it has excellent tolerance to high limestone soil conditions , this is of little or no benefit in California vineyards. This stock readily roots its cuttings, and is easy to bud and graft.
The leaves are small, round, entire, with a very distinct shallow open U-shaped petiolar sinus. Serrations are small, sharp, and uniform. Upper surfaces are deep bluish green, contrasting with light green veins; lower surfaces have a metallic brownish green cast, texture is tough or leathery, but smooth, without tomentum. Vine bears male (pollen producing) flowers in small clusters.
3306 (syn. Couderc 3306; Riparia X Rupestris, No. 3306) is a variety arising as a hybrid between the species Vitis riparia and V. rupestris. This phylloxera resistant rootstock produces moderately vigorous, grafted vines that bear good crops. It is not recommended for California vineyards because other stocks are more suitable. Leaves are small, entire, round to a blunt heart shape, with a tendency toward three lobbing. The serrations are distinct, somewhat irregular, and enlarged at apex. Leaves are medium green, smooth textured, dense, short, and upright hairs uniformly cover the petioles and veins on the lower surfaces. There is only light tomentum on blades and veins on the upper surfaces; petiolar sinus is deep and open V-shape. Bears male flowers on small , inconspicuous clusters.
3309 (syn. Couderc 3309; Riparia X Rupestris, No. 3309) is a variety arising as a hybrid between the species Vitis riparia and V.rupestris. This phylloxera resistant stock is used extensively in other countries, but is not recommended in California because other stocks perform better. Leaves are small, entire, round to a blunt heart shape, with a tendency toward three lobbing. Serrations are distinct, irregular, and somewhat larger than 3306; apex is prominent, medium green, smooth textured. In contrast to 3306, the upper surfaces are glabrous; lower surfaces are also glabrous except for discrete tufts of long hairs at the junctions of large veins. Petioles are glabrous, petiolar sinus is deep and open V-shape. Bears male flowers in small, inconspicuous clusters.
5A (syn. Teleki 5A; Berlandieri X Riparia 5A) is a hybrid of Vitis berlandieri and V.riparia produced in Hungary by Teleki. It is phylloxera resistant and has a high tolerance to lime soils. The latter quality is useful in parts of Europe but not in California. Its performance in California has been erratic in field trials: in the non irrigated coastal valleys, it was surpassed by one more of the phylloxera resistant stocks. In trials in phylloxerated sites in the interior valleys, it has produced vigorous, heavy bearing scions. Leaves are large, entire and heart shaped, with a slight tendency toward three lobbing. Serrations are uniform but shallow. Leaves are medium green, but darker on upper surfaces. Mature leaves are medium to dark green with glabrous upper surfaces; lower surfaces have short upright tomentum, usually found only along the veins and petiole; petiolar sinus moderately open U-shape; petioles have a reddish tinge. Produces female flowers that may develop into small, loose clusters with round, black berries.
S04 (syn. Selection Oppenheim No. 4) is a variety selected in Germany from the Vitis berlandieri XV. Riparia hybrids of Teleki. It is a vigorous phylloxera resistant stock, but more field testing must be done in California before it can be recommended. May be useful for heavier soils of irrigated interior valleys. Leaves are large, entire, heart shaped, with a tendency toward three lobbing. Serrations are sharp, relatively uniform in size and shape, enlarged at the tips of the lobes, medium green. Older leaves are slightly rough, short, with uniform tomentum on lower surfaces and tendency to tuft, especially along the veins. Upper surfaces and petioles have sparse, light tomentum with tufting tendency, slight curves, and a V-shaped petiolar sinus. Bears small clusters of male flowers.
Leaves are medium sized, moderately to distinctly three to five lobed; upper surfaces are lightly tufted with long hairs; lower surfaces are moderately heavy with tomentum, particularly with heavy tufts along veins and petioles. Serrations very shallow, even, rounded and medium green; petiolar sinus is deep, open V-shaped. Vine is very vigorous, spreading, and prostrate. It produces female flowers that develop small, compact clusters of medium sized black berries.
Freedom is a new introduction from the U.S. Horticulture Field Station at Fresno with characteristics similar to those of Harmony.
Harmony (syn. US 16-154) is a cross between a selected seedling of 1613 (#39) and a selected seedling of Dogridge (#5), made in 1955 at the U.S. Horticultural Field Station at Fresno, Vines grafted on Harmony are more vigorous than vines on 1613, but less strong than those on Dogridge and Salt Creek rootstocks. Although Harmony has shown greater resistant to root knot nematode and phylloxera than 1613, it is not immune to either. Cuttings of this stock root readily, and it buds and grafts easily. In the San Joaquin Valley, Harmony seems suited to all but the very lightest soils, and is particularly adapted to the Thompson Seedless variety for raisin and wine production. Early test indicate that Harmony is probably satisfactory for table grapes. Leaves are medium to medium small, slightly three lobed and round; serrations are shallow, distinct, sharp, irregular; petiolar sinus is deep, open, slightly U-shaped. Upper surfaces and petioles are lightly tufted with gray tomentum; lower surfaces are very lightly tufted, medium green with bright cast; petiole is long, one half to tow thirds the length of the blade (J.H. Weinberger). Vines are moderately vigorous, semierect, and have dense growth. It produces female flowers that develop small, compact clusters of small black berries.
Salt Creek (syn. Ramsey, Vitis champini Salt Creek) probably originated as a V. champini type and is closely related to Dogridge. It should not be confused with the true variety, Salt Creek, which was selected from V. doaniana. This stock imparts great vigor to its scions, and is highly resistant to nematodes and moderately resistant to phylloxera. It low fertility. Since it is less vigorous than Dogridge, it has a greater range of use. Cuttings root with difficulty, but the stock buds and grafts readily. Suckering is less of a problem than with Dogridge, but disbudding is recommended. Leaves are medium to medium small, slightly three lobed, roundish; serrations uniform, distinct, shallow, sharp or acute. Upper surfaces are lightly tufted, medium green with bright glossy cast; petiolar sinus is deep, with open U-shape. Vine is moderately vigorous, and has a dense, upright habit. It produces female flowers that develop small, compact clusters of medium small black berries.
|1613 (syn. Courderc 1613; Solonis X Othello 1613; Solonis Othello) is a variety arising as a hybrid between the species V. solonis and the fruiting variety Othello. This stock produces moderately vigorous scions, is resistant to the more prevalent strains of rootknot nematodes and moderately resistant to phylloxera. Suitable for wine, raisin, and some table varieties in all but the lightest soils in the San Joaquin Valley and southern California. Cuttings root readily, and it buds and grafts easily. Leaves are large, entire, with a tendency to form lobes; broad, with nearly straight sides. Serrations are distinct and fairly uniform, but enlarged at tips of lobes; dull gray-green above, grayish with heavy tomentum below; Petioles and upper surfaces are tufted with tomentem; petiolar sinus is open with broad U-shape. Vine spreading is prostrate with vigorous growth, and produces female flowers that develop into small compact black berries.
Vitis Species Native to California
Vitis California (syn. California wild grape, Pacific grape) is a species native to northern California, ordinarily found along stream banks at lower elevations. It has little resistance to phylloxera, nematodes , or oak root fungus. It bears fruit in irregular, loose small berried clusters of no commercial value. It crosses naturally with cultivated vines, and hybrids can occasionally be found in areas adjacent to vineyards. These hybrids are not useful for rootstocks. Leaves are medium to large, round, entire, with a slight tendency toward three lobbing; serrations are somewhat irregular and rounded. Upper surfaces are dark green with a gray green cast; lower surfaces are gray green with profuse tomentum. Mature leaves are heavily tufted with tomentum on the upper surfaces, and densely matted on the lower ones; young leaves are covered with tomentum on both surfaces; petiolar sinus is a deep, narrow U-shape. Vine is vigorous, climbing, attaches to trees and shrubs, frequently reaches 30 to 40 ft (9.14 12.20 m) , and can form a dense canopy.
Vitis girdiana (syn. Valley grape) is closely related to though less vigorous than V. californica and occurs in southern California. No use has been made of this species. Leaves are similar to but smaller than V. californica. Shoots are moderately vigorous and densely covered with woolly white tomentum at the tips.
|New York Varieties (After Einset et al 1973)
In New York State grapes are grown for use in juice, wine, fresh, fruit, jelly, and jam. The Concord variety comprises about 75 percent of the New York grape crop delivered to processors. The leading wine varieties, Niagara, Catawba, and Delaware, total 16 percent, Elvira and Ives 3 percent, and the French hybrids 5 percent. The remainder, approximately 1 percent, is made up of miscellaneous other varieties. Descriptions of several varieties are given below.
Catawba is a late ripening, red, American type grape that require the best vineyard sites in the most favourable locations to reach full maturity. Vines are vigorous, hardy, and productive, but the foliage is somewhat susceptible to fungus diseases that can be controlled by spraying. Catawba is an important ingredient in New York State champagnes and table wines.
Concord is a blue black American type grape with a tough skin that separates readily from the pulpy flesh (slipskin). Concord is a late midseason grape, and is also the standard by which both the vine and fruit of other varieties are judged. The use of this fruit for many purposes gives it a large market outlet. Concord is the only important variety for sweet juice, jelly, and preserves, and much is also used for wine production. Its pronounced fruity flavor makes it a good dessert grape. In a late season, and in less desirable locations, the variety may fail to attain full maturity on heavily loaded vines.
Delaware is one of the highest quality American grapes for table use and for white wine. It ripens tow or more weeks before Concord, and has small compact clusters with small red berries. The tender skin is subject to cracking when fall rains occur near harvest time, and the variety is susceptible to fungus diseases. Delaware requires a deep, fertile well drained soil for good vine growth, and vines may produce yields as high as those of Concord on such soils. On poorer soils and on old vineyard sites, a phylloxera resistant rootstock should be used to ensure vigorous growth.
Niagara, the leading American type white grape is used fresh and for wine. It is less cold resistant than Concord, and is moderately susceptible to the major grape diseases.
New York grapes of less commercial importance.
Clinton is a red wine grape with small berries and clusters that closely resemble the wild v. riparia. It is vigorous and has been used as a rootstock for less sturdy varieties.
Diamond resembles the fruit of Niagara and the vine of Concord. As a dry table wine it is one of the most distinctive and desirable of the American types.
Dutchess is a late ripening white grape related to V.vinifera. it produces a white wine of high quality, is susceptible to disease, and may be injured by the low temperatures.
Elvira is a white wine grape with American species, V. riparia, the River bank or Frost Grape, in its ancestry. This variety is hardy, productive, and disease resistant. Its thin skin and compact clusters may cause the berries to crack. Ripens at about the same time as Concord.
Fredonia is a black Concord type grape that ripens about two weeks earlier than Concord. It lacks the typical Concord flavor desirable for making juice and jelly. Although it may exceed Concord in vigor and production, fruit is susceptible to downy mildew.
Ives is a black grape of the V. labrusca or Fox Grape type used in red wines. It is vigorous and productive in good locations. A study rootstock should be used in poor locations.
Isabella is an old, black labrusca type grape used for wine. It is tender and subject to winter injury.
|French Hybrids and Newer Wine Grapes (Einset et al., 1973)
French hybrids have been derived from crosses between V. vinifera and a number of wild American species. They were made by French hybridisers who were seeking phylloxera resistant varieties that would produce wines less fruity and more neutral in flavor. These grapes are usually identified by the name of the originator and a number.
Nearly all American type grapes or hybrids contain V. labrusca in their parentage, but the French have used mainly other American species with different fruit and plant characteristics. Thus the two groups of hybrids are quite distinct in appearance.
The shoots of most French hybrids grow more upright than American hybrids. The leaves usually have deeper sinuses, are are more glossy, and lack the heavy tomentum common on the underside of American grape leaves and V. labrusca. The flavor of the fruit is generally more neutral, lacking the fruitiness of our native varieties.
Maréchal Foch (Kuhlmann 188-2) is a very early, small clustered, small berried black grape that produces an excellent Burgundy type red wine. Vines are hardy and medium in vigor and production.it should be grafted on a resistant rootstock to ensure adequate vigor. Birds can be a problem.
Léon-Millot (Kuhlmann 194-2). The fruit, vine, and wine are similar to Foch. It is early ripening and has a high sugar content.
Baco Noir (Baco No. 1) is an extremely vigorous and disease resistant variety used for red wine that grows well in arbors. Bud break occurs early in the spring and may be subject to late spring frost injury.
De Chaunac (Seibel 9549) appears to be one of the best French hybrids for red wine. It is hardy, relatively free from disease, and is less susceptible to bird damage than some other varieties.
Chelois (Seibel 10878) is a vigorous, productive variety used for a claret type wine. Vines are only moderately winter hardy, especially if over cropped.
Rougeon (Seibel 5898) is a commercial red wine grape that yields a highly colored wine used for blending. Vines are hardy but erratic producers.
Rosette (Seibel 7053) is widely grown in France. It is hardy and productive, and the wine produced is of the highest quality. The fruit is susceptible to early downy mildew.
Colobel (Seibel 8357) is a ?teinturier,? or a variety with highly colored juice, used for blending with paler wines. Vines are moderately hardy and productive.
Vignoles (Ravat 51) makes a fine Chablis type white wine. The clusters are compact and the berries tend to crack in wet seasons. Vines are hardy but of medium vigor and production.
Verdelet (Seibel 9110) is a yellow gold dessert and wine variety grown in the best locations. This grape tends to overbear and the crop must be thinned. It is subject to winter injury.
Seyval (Seyve-Villard 5-276) is a high quality, midseason, white grape that produces a fine white wine. It tends to overbear and must be cluster-thinned for proper ripening and to prevent weaking of the vines.
Vidal 256 is a late, white, hardy, heavy producer. The wine is neutral in flavor and is rated good to very good.
Veeport, from the Holticultural Research Institute of Ontario at Vineland, Canada, makes a good dessert wine. It is productive and moderately vigorous.
Vincent, another Vineland introduction is a dark blue grape with dark juice, and produces wine that is useful for blending. Its wine ratings have been high.
Other varieties recommended for trials are Cabernet Sauvignon, Gewürztraminer, Pinot noir, and White Riesling.
Bath is productive black grape with a neutral flavor that ripens about a week before Concord.
Buffalo has the finest dessert quality of the early black grapes. Vines are moderately hardy and the fruit has good storage qualities.
Caco is an old, typically labrusca type, red variety, reported to be a cross between Concord and Catawba.
Golden Muscat has golden fruit that produces large, juicy berries of high quality.
|New York Muscat is a reddish black grape with a rich Muscat flavor. The fruit makes a good red muscatel wine, and vines are vigorous and hardy.
Schuyler is a very early black grape that ripens at least three weeks before Concord. Vines are very productive but tender to cold.
Sheridan is a late black grape that extends the season for those who like Concord type fruit. The vines are vigorous, productive, and hardy.
Steuben is a bluish black grape that ripens shortly after Concord. The flavor is sweet with a spicy tang. The vines are moderately vigorous, hardy, and productive. Steuben also makes good wine.
Van Buren is the best early Concord type grape. It is hardy, but slightly susceptible to downy mildew.
Vinered is a large clustered, very handsome red grape introduced by Canadian workers. It is a late grape that ripens to maturity only in the most favourable seasons at Geneva.
Yates is a hardy, late red grape with juicy sweet flesh, tough skin, and good storage quality.
Concord Seedless is probably a seedless mutation or sport of Concord. Clusters and berries are smaller than Concord, but the fruit matures earlier, has high flavor, and makes excellent preserves and pies.
Himrod is an early, white seedless variety that makes one of the most delicious dessert grapes. It is a cross between Ontario and Thompson Seedless. The clusters are large, loose, and irregular. This can be controlled by sprays of gibberellic acid, cane girdling, or thinning to increase berry set and improve berry size.
Interlaken Seedless is also a cross between Ontario and Thompson Seedless. The clusters are medium sized and compact with small, white seedless berries that ripen a month before Concord. Grafted vines are preferred.
Lakemont (named in 1972) is another white grape that is a cross between Ontario and Thompso Seedless. The compact clusters ripen a week or two after Himrod.
Suffolk Red (named in 1972) is a large berried, red seedless grape. It is moderately winter hardy, has loose clusters, and responds well to sprays of gibberellic acid.
Grapes for home winemaking. Varieties recommended for the home winemarker in New York are listed in Table 6-11.
At least six species of Vitis are important among the American hybrids grown in New York, ranging from the highly phylloxera-resistant V. riparia to the non-resistant V. vinifera (Lider and Shaulis, 1974). This accounts for the varying resistance in some of the scion varieties.
|Baco noir, a V. vinifera crossed with a V. riparia hybrid, is used occasionally as a resistant rootstock in New York vineyards, and recently interest in its use has increased. The phylloxera resistance of Baco noir is high, but it is relatively low in cold hardiness when used either as a scion or a rootstock variety. Baco noir roots are also susceptible to infection by tomato ringspot virus. This variety is not recommended as a rootstock for New York vineyards.
Couder 3309 is currently recommended for use in New York State. It has been an excellent stock on a wide range of soil types and varieties.
|Muscadine Grappes (Anonymous, 1973)
These grapes are best suited for the southern states from the eastern third of Texas to the Atlantic seabord. The fresh fruit is generally sold locally because the flavor and aroma deteriorate rapidly. It is also used for unfermented juice, pies, jellies, sauces, and wines. The latter have a distinctive flavor and are sold mainly to the specialty trade. The three species of muscadine grapes are M. rotundifolia, M. munsoniana, and M. popenoei. The most widespread is M. rotundifolia. Muscadine grapes are insect and disease resistant.
Some of the leading varieties are the following :
|Perfect flowers. Reddish black fruit, fair to good in quality.
Late maturing, reddish black berries. Good variety for wine andculinary use.
Perfect flowers. A fine flavoured, late green grape of medium medium size that develops high sugar content.
Medium sized black fruit of good quality.
An enormous white grape that outsells other varieties on thefresh fruit market.
Best all purpose black variety; a favorite for pies, sauces, jelliesand jams.
Perfect flowers. A seedling of Thomas, which it resembles.
Best known and oldest cultivated variety of American grapes.Quality good; flavor is distinctive.
Old standard grape with reddish black berries that make flavorful Unfermented juice.
large green grape with very high sugar content and pleasing flavor.
Late maturing, reddish bronze, high quality, attractive fruit.