Oliver Hazard Perry Class

 

Origin: USA.

Type: Frigate.

Number: 35 ships + 14 building + 2 ordered.

Displacement: 3,605 tons full load.

Dimensions: Length overall 445ft (135ּ6m); beam 45ft (13ּ7m); draught 14ּ8ft (4ּ5m).

Propulsion: 2 gas turbines, 41,000 shp; 1 shaft; 29kt.

Armament: 1 Harpoon/standard Mk 13 launcher; 1 3in (76mm) gun; 1 Phalanx CIWS; 2 triple Mk 32 torpedo tubes.

Aircraft: 2 SH-2.

Complement: 210.

 

Development: The Oliver Hazard Perry (FFG7) class originated in the “Patrol Frigate” programme which was to constitute the “low” end of a high/ low mix, providing large numbers of cheap escorts with reduced capabilities. These were to balance the sophisticated and very costly specialist ASW and AAW ships whose primary mission was to protect carriers. Strict limitations were placed on cost, displacement and manpower, and the FFG7 was to be built in small yards, keeping construction techniques simple, making the maximum use of flat panels and bulkheads, and ensuring that passageways kept deliberately straight. The hull structure is prefabricated in modules of 35, 100, 200 or 400 tons, allowing the shipyards to select the most convenient size.

 

Above: The Oliver Hazard Perry, lead ship of the low-cost class of frigates designed to complement the Spruance class.

 

Below: The single Mk 13 Tartar launcher on the foredeck and the SPS-49 surveillance radar are prominent features of the FFG7s.

 

 

            Like the previous frigate classes, the Perry has only one screw, but the layout is much more compact as the result of using gas turbines. Two LM2500s (the same model as in the Spruances) are located side by side in a single engine room, and small retractable propulsion pods are fitted just aft of the sonar dome to provide emergency “ get you home” power as well as help docking. Each of these pods has a 325hp engine, and the two together can propel the ship at a speed of some 10kt.

            The FFG7 has a Mk 13 launcher forward for Standard (MR) SAMs and Harpoon ASMs and an OTO Melara 3in (76mm) gun on top of the superstructure. ASROC is not fitted, but there is a large hangar aft for two LAMPS helicopters. The SQS 56 sonar is hull mounted inside a rubber dome; it is a new austere type, much less sophisticated than the SQS-26. it was planned, however , that the FFG7 would operate in company with other frigates equipped with the SQS-26 and would receive target in formation from their sensors via data links. Later in the decade it is intended to fit the SQR-19 towed array sonar in all active FFG7 frigates.

            The FFG7 has been tailored to accommodate only those systems envisaged in the near future, including the SH-60 LAMPS-III, fin stabilizers, the Link 11 data transfer system and a single Phalanx CIWS. Once these has been installed, however, there remains only a further 50 ton margin for additional equipment.

            Four Perrys have been built in the USA for the Royal Australian Navy and three are being built by Bazan at Ferroi for the Spanish Navy.

 

Below: Oliver Hazard Perry on sea trials. The large double hangar accommodates two SH-2 LAMPS helicopters, and later members of the class will be lengthened and given extra equipment to handle the new SH-60B Seahawk LAMPS III.

 

Above: Oliver Hazard Perry undergoes a mine resistance test, an aspect of naval warfare which NATO navies are taking increasingly seriously.

 

 

AMPHIBIOUS VESSELS

 

Ivan Rogov Class

 

Origin: Soviet Union.

Type: Landing ship.

Number: 2 ships + 1 building.

Displacement: 11,000 tons standard; 14,000 tons full load.

Dimensions: Length overall 522ft (159m); beam 80ft (25m); draught 21/28ft (6ּ 5/8ּ5m).

Propulsion: COGAG; 24,000shp; 2 shafts; 26kt.

Armament: 1 twin SA-N-4 launcher; 1 twin 3in (76ּ2m) gun; 4 30mm Gatling CIWS; 120-barreled rocket launcher.

Aircraft: 5 Ka-25 Hormone-A.

Complement: 400.

 

Development: Although Ivan Rogov carries the same BDK designation as the Alligator class, her displacement is more than twice that of her predecessor. More importantly, the design represents a significant break with previous Soviet amphibious ships in that it incorporates a hangar for helicopters an a docking well for amphibious landing craft both features of Western amphibious construction but never before adopted by the Soviet Navy. The result is a ship capable not only of direct beach assault but also of both “horizontal” and “vertical” landing operations.

            The lower part of the ship is built around a continuous tank deck, with workshops and accommodation to the sides and the traditional bow doors and ramp of an LST. Capacity is estimated at 10 tanks, plus 30 APCs and other vehicles. The vehicle load can be increased by utilizing the midships section of the upper deck, access to which is gained by lowering a hinged ramp located immediately aft of the break in the forecastle.

            At the after end of the ship the tank deck leads down into a docking well some 98ft (30m) long and 66ft (20m) wide, closed by a large stern gate. An unusual feature of the docking well is that the height of the deckhead rises towards the stern. This enables the Rogov to operate ACVs of the Gus or Lebed classes, both of which have tall tail rudders. Two ACVs can be accommodated side by side, with an alternative loading of the new Ondatra class LCMs, which are thought to have been designed specifically for Rogov and her successors.

            The upper part of the ship is dominated by a massive block superstructure which extends to the side of the ship. Apart from carrying the major defensive weapon systems and sensors, the superstructure has troop accommodation four decks high for a full battalion of Naval Infantry (522 officers and men) and also contains a large hangar for Ka-25 Hormone helicopters which appear to be fitted to serve in both the ASW and the troop carrying roles. The hangar itself runs between the funnel uptakes, opening out into a wide bay offset to starboard at its after end. The sloping hangar floor is a continuation of the raised helicopter platform aft, and at its forward end leads down on to the main section of the upper deck via a fixed ramp. Helicopter take off and landing spots, each with its own flying control cabin, are marked out aft of the break in the forecastle and above the stern.

            AAW capabilities are exceptionally complete for an amphibious vessel, and comprise an SA-N-4 missile launcher at the after end of the superstructure, a twin 76mm mounting on the forecastle, and 30mm Gatlings on either side of the foremast. Forward of themain superstructure block, to starboard, is a tall narrow deckhouse, on top of which is rocket launcher.

            The construction of Ivan Rogov marks a significant advance in the long range amphibious capabilities of the Soviet Navy. However, the attempt to put the capabilities of the LPH, LPD and LST into one hull does not appear to be entirely successful. The docking well is small by Western standards, and the ability to land heavy vehicles except by direct beaching is strictly limited.

 

Below: Stern view of Ivan Rogov with the hangar doors open. Note the stern ramp for ACV and landing craft access.

 

 

Above: The forward and after landing pads for Ivan Rogov’s “Hormones” are clearly visible.

 

Below: Ivan Rogov’s bulky superstructure accommodates a battalion of naval infantry.

 

 

Ropucha Class

 

Origin: Soviet Union.

Type: Landing ship.

Number: 17 ships.

Displacement: 3,450 tons standard; 4,400 tons full load.

Dimensions: Length overall 360ft (110m); beam 49ft (15m); draught 12 ft (3ּ5m).

Propulsion: Diesel, 10,000bhp; 2 shafts; 17kt.

Armament: 2 twin 57mm guns.

Complement: 95.

 

Development: Built, like the Polynocny class, in Poland, the Ropucha is  altogether larger and more capable than its predecessor. The main improvements, apart from the increase in vehicle capacity resulting from the increase in size, lie in the powerful modern anti aircraft armament and the extensive troop accommodation.

            The tank deck is continuous, with bow and stern ramps provided. Above the squared off bow section is a long, sliding, hatch cover for alongside loading or off loading of vehicles and supplies.

            The conventional LST hull form is surmounted by an exceptionally long superstructure with accommodation for large numbers of troops. At either end of the superstructure are twin 57mm automatic mountings, controlled by a single Muff Cob director. Air search and navigation radars are carried atop a tall lattice foremast. Forward of the bridge there appears to be provision for the installation of an SA-N-4 “bin” launcher although the associated Pop Group guidance radar is not fitted.

            The relatively slow building rate of the Ropucha class may indicate greater Soviet emphasis on large high speed ACVs for short range assault.

 

Below: Stern view of a Ropucha. Note the stern gate, the split funnels and the forecastle hatch. 

 

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